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Liver and Biliary Tract Cancer Research

in the peer-reviewed medical literature

None of the 700+ studies listed on this site can substitute for consulting a licensed naturopathic physician.  And none can be expected to function as stand-alone, at-home treatment.

A case study of high dose vitamin C bringing about regression of multiple pulmonary metastases from liver cancer.


Yonsei Med J. 2015 Sep;56(5):1449-52. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2015.56.5.1449.

High-Dose Vitamin C Promotes Regression of Multiple Pulmonary Metastases Originating from Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Seo MS1,2, Kim JK3, Shim JY


This paper examines the essential role in cancer prevention derivatives from plants have played due to their pleiotropic abilities to scavenge free radicals, inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis.


Anticancer Agents Med Chem2018 Jun 3. doi: 10.2174/1871520618666180604085612. [Epub ahead of print]

An Overview of Natural Plant Products in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Rawat DShrivastava SNaik RAChhonker SKMehrotra AKoiri RK.


Rosmarinic acid, isolated from herbal balm mint plants, has demonstrated anti-tumor properties against liver cancer.


Biomed Pharmacother2018 Jun 1;105:334-349. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.129. [Epub ahead of print]

Proteomics analysis demonstrating rosmarinic acid suppresses cell growth by blocking the glycolytic pathway in human HepG2 cells.

Ma ZJYan HWang YJYang YLi XBShi ACJing-Wen XYu-Bao LLi LWang XX.



Antitumor effects of Oroxin B (a flavonoid isolated from Oroxylum indicum) were demonstrated along with the possible molecular pathway mechanism involved.


Pharmacogn Mag. 2018 Apr-Jun;14(54):207-213. doi: 10.4103/pm.pm_119_17. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Evidence for the Involvement of COX-2/VEGF and PTEN/Pl3K/AKT Pathway the Mechanism of Oroxin B Treated Liver Cancer.

Li NNMeng XSBao YRWang SLi TJ


Anticarginogenic effects of Garcinia mangostana on the development of liver cancer.


Pharmacogn Mag. 2018 Apr-Jun;14(54):186-190. doi: 10.4103/pm.pm_213_17. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Biochemical Evidence for the Antitumor Potential of Garcinia mangostana Linn. On Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Carcinoma.

Priya VVJainu MMohan SK.


Efficacy of traditional herbal medicine was compared and found to be superior to that of transarterial chemoembolization in small hepatocellular carcinoma post surgery.


Cancer. 2018 May 15;124(10):2161-2168. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30915. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Traditional herbal medicine prevents postoperative recurrence of small hepatocellular carcinoma: A randomized controlled study.

Zhai XFLiu XLShen FFan JLing CQ.

The herbal formula Yang-Gan Jie-Du Sang-Jie was found to inhibit anchorage-independent growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells.


BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Jan 16;18(1):17. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2083-2

Herbal formula YGJDSJ inhibits anchorage-independent growth and induces anoikis in hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells.

Hu BZhang TAn HMZheng JLYan XHuang XW.


Effects of Salvia chinensia Benth exhibited prominent inhibition of and suppressed the orthotopic growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in mice livers.


Oncotarget. 2017 Nov 11;8(62):105848-105859. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22406. eCollection 2017 Dec 1.

Identification of WT1 as determinant of heptatocellular carcinoma and its inhibition by Chinese herbal medicine Salvia chinensis Benth and its active ingredient protocatechualdehyde.

Wang NTan HYChan YTGuo WLi SFeng Y.


Trametes robiniophila Murr was found to inhibit proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma.


J Cancer. 2017 Nov 6;8(19):4087-4097. doi: 10.7150/jca.21018. eCollection 2017.

Huaier Restrains Proliferative and Migratory Potential of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Partially Through Decreased Yes-Associated Protein 1.

Shan LLi YJiang HTao YQian ZLi LCai FMa LYu Y.



Rhododendron luteum extract shows ability to selectively kill colon cancer and liver cancer cells.



J BUON. 2016 Jul-Aug;21(4):883-888.

Selective cytotoxic effect of Rhododendron luteum extract on human colon and liver cancer cells.

Demir S1, Turan I, Aliyazicioglu Y.



Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis can affect the pattern of bcl-2 and bax genes expressions, and this may increase the apoptosis of liver cancer cell line HepG2.


Zhong Yao Cai. 2008 Jun;31(6):877-9.

[Expression of bcl-2 and bax genes in the liver cancer cell line HepG2 after apoptosis induced by essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis].

[Article in Chinese]

When trying to find pain relief for cancer patients, research found that DMSO, sodium bicarbonate, and SAMe was not only helpful relieving pain, but also helped cancer go into remission.

J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2014 Sep;28(3):206-11. doi: 10.3109/15360288.2014.938882. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

Hoang BX, Tran HQ, Vu UV, Pham QT, Shaw DG.

An iv nutrient mixture suppressed the growth and liver metastasis of some melanoma cells in lab studies.

Oncol Rep. 2008 Oct;20(4):809-17.

Suppression of growth and hepatic metastasis of murine B16FO melanoma cells by a novel nutrient mixture.

Roomi MW1, Kalinovsky T, Roomi NW, Ivanov V, Rath M, Niedzwiecki A.

Vitamin E intake, either from diet or supplements, may reduce the risk of liver cancer.


J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Aug 8;104(15):1173-81. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djs277. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Vitamin intake and liver cancer risk: a report from two cohort studies in China.

Zhang W1, Shu XOLi HYang GCai HJi BTGao JGao YTZheng WXiang YB.


Mountain peony compounds could be a promising drug to treat liver cancer.


Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 28;584(2-3):246-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.02.016. Epub 2008 Feb 15.

Anti-tumor effects of paeonol in a HepA-hepatoma bearing mouse model via induction of tumor cell apoptosis and stimulation of IL-2 and TNF-alpha production.

Sun GP1, Wang HXu SPShen YXWu QChen ZDWei W.

Artesunate has marked antitumor activity in liver cancer.


Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Oct;26(10):707-8, 720.

[Experimental studies of antitumor effect of artesunate on liver cancer].

[Article in Chinese]

Wang Q1, Wu LMLi AYZhao YWang NP.

Curcumin mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through activation of multiple cell signaling pathways, and thus, its activity against cholangiocarcinoma should be further investigated. 

Carcinogenesis.   Curcumin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human biliary cancer cells through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Prakobwong S, et al. 2011.

Cratoxylum formosum extracts induced cell death, stimulated apoptosis and inhibited migration of liver cancer cells.


Biomed Rep. 2017 Apr;6(4):441-448. doi: 10.3892/br.2017.871. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Cytotoxic and antimigratory effects of Cratoxy formosum extract against HepG2 liver cancer cells.

Buranrat B1, Mairuae N1, Kanchanarach W2.



Gypsophila elegans has the ability to induce apoptosis against liver cancer cells.


J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jul 1;187:187-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.050. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Isoorientin from Gypsophila elegans induces apoptosis in liver cancer cells via mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

Lin X1, Wei J1, Chen Y2, He P1, Lin J1, Tan S1, Nie J1, Lu S1, He M1, Lu Z3, Huang Q4.



Allium atroviolaceum may be useful for the treatment of liver cancer.


Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jan 31;8:5. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00005. eCollection 2017.

In vitro Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Inducing Effect of Allium atroviolaceum Bulb Extract on Breast, Cervical, and Liver Cancer Cells.

Khazaei S1, Esa NM2, Ramachandran V3, Hamid RA1, Pandurangan AK4, Etemad A1, Ismail P1.



Cyphomandra betacea fruits have potential as an effective agent in liver cancer therapy.


Springerplus. 2016 Dec 20;5(1):2105. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-3777-x. eCollection 2016.

Phenolics profile and anti-proliferative activity of Cyphomandra Betacea fruit in breast and liver cancer cells.

Mutalib MA1, Ali F2, Othman F3, Ramasamy R4, Rahmat A1.


Persian shallot extract could be considered as a potential candidate for the prevention or treatment of liver cancer.


Cytotechnology. 2017 Apr 10. doi: 10.1007/s10616-017-0093-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss, induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Hosseini FS1, Falahati-Pour SK2, Hajizadeh MR1,3, Khoshdel A1,2, Mirzaei MR3, Ahmadirad H3, Behroozi R4, Jafari N5, Mahmoodi M6,7.



Ampelopsis sinica root extract may be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Oncol Rep. 2017 Apr;37(4):2227-2236. doi: 10.3892/or.2017.5504. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Anti-hepatoma activities of ethyl acetate extract from Ampelopsis sinica root.

Wang JZ1, Huang BS1, Cao Y1, Chen KL1, Li J1.



Rubus aleaefolius Poir may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Int J Oncol. 2013 Mar;42(3):971-8. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.1779. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Total alkaloids of Rubus aleaefolius Poir inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vivo and in vitro via activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

Zhao J1, Chen XLin WWu GZhuang QZhong XHong ZPeng J.



Sinomenium acutum plant compounds may serve as a potential drug candidate against hepatocellular carcinoma.


Int J Oncol. 2013 Jan;42(1):229-38. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2012.1704. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Sinomenine hydrochloride inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo: involvement of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.

Lu XL1, Zeng JChen YLHe PMWen MXRen MDHu YNLu GFHe SΧ.



In this study, oleanolic acid demonstrated significant antitumor activities in liver cancer.


Carcinogenesis. 2013 Jun;34(6):1323-30. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgt058. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid on hepatocellular carcinoma via ERK-p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

Wang X1, Bai HZhang XLiu JCao PLiao NZhang WWang ZHai C.



Fenugreek seeds are a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in liver cancer cells.


Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:914645. doi: 10.1155/2015/914645. Epub 2015 Oct 18.

Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen.

Khalil MI1, Ibrahim MM2, El-Gaaly GA3, Sultan AS4.



Bistorta officinalis may be a potential new alternative or complementary medicine for liver cancer.


Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 30;7:41437. doi: 10.1038/srep41437.

Aqueous extract of Polygonum bistorta modulates proteostasis by ROS-induced ER stress in human hepatoma cells.

Liu YH1,2, Weng YP3,4, Lin HY5, Tang SW6, Chen CJ1, Liang CJ6, Ku CY6, Lin JY5,6.


Ginkgo biloba leaves extract show apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Acta Biochim Pol. 2017;64(1):25-33. doi: 10.18388/abp.2015_1200. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents.

Ahmed HH1, Shousha WG2, El-Mezayen HA2, El-Toumy SA3, Sayed AH1,4, Ramadan AR2.


In this study, Juniperus chinensis , shows to have anti-angiogenic and anti-hepatocellular activities. 


BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 8;16:277. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1250-6.

Antiangiogenic and antihepatocellular carcinoma activities of the Juniperus chinensis extract.

Kuo ZK1, Lin MW1, Lu IH1, Yao HJ1, Wu HC1, Wang CC1, Lin SH1, Wu SY1, Tong TS2, Cheng YC1, Yen JH1, Ko CH1, Chiou SJ1, Pan IH3,4, Tseng HW5,6.



Saw Palmetto suppressed tumor expansion and may be potential adjuvant treatment for  hepatocellular carcinoma.


Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Aug 5;17(8). pii: E1277. doi: 10.3390/ijms17081277.

New Natural Pigment Fraction Isolated from Saw Palmetto: Potential for Adjuvant Therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Tan HY1, Wang N2, Takahashi M3, Feng Y4, Li H5, Feng Y6.


Elytranthe parasitica active fractions could be a promising contender in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Oct 26;16(1):420.

Pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of enriched fraction of Elytranthe parasitica (L.) Danser against HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma.

Kumar N1, Biswas S2, Mathew AE2, Varghese S2, Mathew JE3, Nandakumar K2, Aranjani JM4, Lobo R5.



Red sage water compounds may be a chemotherapeutic agent for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.


Int J Oncol. 2016 Dec;49(6):2538-2548. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3748. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in salvianolic acid B-induced autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Gong L1, Di C2, Xia X1, Wang J1, Chen G1, Shi J1, Chen P3, Xu H3, Zhang W3.



Paeonia lactiflora extract has therapeutic potential for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Int J Mol Sci. 2016 May 4;17(5). pii: E669. doi: 10.3390/ijms17050669.

Identification of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as a Glycine N-Methyltransferase Enhancer by High-Throughput Screening of Natural Products Inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma.

Kant R1,2, Yen CH3,4,5,6, Lu CK7,8, Lin YC9,10, Li JH11,12, Chen YM13,14,15.


Cordyceps militaris fungus show cytotoxic effects in liver cancer cells.


Mol Med Rep. 2016 Jun;13(6):5132-40. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5175. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF‑7 cells.

Song J1, Wang Y1, Teng M1, Zhang S1, Yin M1, Lu J1, Liu Y1, Lee RJ1, Wang D1, Teng L1.



Dioscorea nipponica extract may have potential use as a chemo-preventive agent against liver cancer metastasis.


Am J Chin Med. 2016;44(1):177-95. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X16500129.

Dioscorea nipponica Attenuates Migration and Invasion by Inhibition of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator through Involving PI3K/Akt and Transcriptional Inhibition of NF-[Formula: see text]B and SP-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hsieh MJ1,2,3, Yeh CB4,5, Chiou HL6,7, Hsieh MC6,7, Yang SF3,8.



Compounds found in the plant Scutellaria baicalensis could be a potential therapeutic agent against liver cancer.


Oncol Lett. 2015 Sep;10(3):1831-1835. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Wogonoside induces apoptosis in Bel-7402, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, by regulating Bax/Bcl-2.

Li Y1, Tu M2, Cheng C1, Tian J1, Zhang F1, Deng Z1, Li X1, Li Z3, Liu Y3, Lei G1.



Prophylactic dietary supplementation with lycopene-enriched tomato extract may counteract hepatocellular carcinoma progression and/or protect against disease onset.


Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(8):1268-75. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2015.1087040. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Lycopene Enriched Tomato Extract Inhibits Hypoxia, Angiogenesis, and Metastatic Markers in early Stage N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Bhatia N1, Gupta P1, Singh B1,2, Koul A1.



Grape seed extract could be a promising natural remedy for attenuating hepatocellular carcinoma.


Acta Biochim Pol. 2015;62(3):573-80. doi: 10.18388/abp.2015_1030. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Current concepts in pathophysiology and management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hamza AH1, Abdulfattah HM2, Mahmoud RH1, Khalil WK3, Ahmed HH4.



Petasites japonicus root extract exerts an anticancer effect on Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma.


Exp Ther Med. 2015 May;9(5):1791-1796. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract from the roots of Petasites japonicus on Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

Kim HJ1, Park SY1, Lee HM1, Seo DI1, Kim YM1.



Euphorbia helioscopia could effectively inhibit tumor growth, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:601015. doi: 10.1155/2015/601015. Epub 2015 May 18.

hepatocellular carcinoma Growth Is Inhibited by Euphorbia helioscopia L. Extract in Nude Mice Xenografts.

Cheng J1, Han W2, Wang Z2, Shao Y2, Wang Y3, Zhang Y2, Li Z4, Xu X2, Zhang Y2.



The plant Rumex vesicarius is an anti-cancer candidate with a promising potential against hepatocellular carcinoma.


Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(10):4303-10.

Significance of Rumex vesicarius as anticancer remedy against hepatocellular carcinoma: a proposal-based on experimental animal studies.

Shahat AA1, Alsaid MSKotob SEAhmed HH.



Breadfruit and its dichloromethane fraction can induce autophagic cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Am J Chin Med. 2015;43(3):559-79. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X15500354.

Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human hepatocellular carcinoma Cells.

Tzeng CW1, Tzeng WSLin LTLee CWYen MHYen FLLin CC.


In this study, toad skin extract exhibited potent therapeutic effect in xenografted human hepatoma without notable side effects.


Oncotarget. 2015 May 10;6(13):11627-39.

ψ-Bufarenogin, a novel anti-tumor compound, suppresses liver cancer growth by inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling.

Ding J1,2, Wen W1,2, Xiang D1,2, Yin P1,3, Liu Y4, Liu C3, He G1, Cheng Z1, Yin J5, Sheng C6, Zhang W6, Nan F5, Ye W7, Zhang X4, Wang H1,2.



Lingzhi mushroom extract shows inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


J Transl Med. 2015 Mar 26;13:100. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0465-5.

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by downregulating regulatory T cells accumulation and function by inducing microRNA-125b.

Li A1,2, Shuai X3, Jia Z4, Li H5, Liang X6, Su D7,8,9, Guo W10.



Hedyotis diffusa may have antiproliferative activity, inhibition of metastasis, and apoptotic effects in induced hepatocellular carcinoma.  


Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:501508. doi: 10.1155/2015/501508. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Oldenlandia diffusa Promotes Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects in a Rat hepatocellular carcinoma with Liver Cirrhosis.

Sunwoo YY1, Lee JH2, Jung HY3, Jung YJ4, Park MS3, Chung YA5, Maeng LS3, Han YM3, Shin HS3, Lee J6, Park SI3.



Graptopetalum paraguayense compounds could be considered for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


PLoS One. 2015 Apr 7;10(4):e0121298. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121298. eCollection 2015.

Evaluation of the medicinal herb Graptopetalum paraguayense as a treatment for liver cancer.

Hsu WH1, Chang CC2, Huang KW3, Chen YC1, Hsu SL4, Wu LC5, Tsou AP6, Lai JM7, Huang CY8.



Koidz seed extract has anticancer potency in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:192749. doi: 10.1155/2014/192749. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Akebia trifoliate (Thunb.) Koidz Seed Extract Inhibits the Proliferation of Human hepatocellular carcinoma Cell Lines via Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

Lu WL1, Ren HY1, Liang C1, Zhang YY1, Xu J2, Pan ZQ1, Liu XM1, Wu ZH3, Fang ZQ1.


Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin extract can inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Oncol Rep. 2014 Dec;32(6):2710-8. doi: 10.3892/or.2014.3541. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Ethyl acetate extract from Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing polycomb gene product Bmi1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Chen XZ1, Cao ZY1, Li JN1, Hu HX1, Zhang YQ2, Huang YM1, Liu ZZ1, Hu D1, Liao LM1, Du J2.



Entada phaseoloides seed extract inhibits liver cancer cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis.


J BUON. 2014 Apr-Jun;19(2):406-11.

N-butanol fraction of Entada phaseoloides ethanol extract inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis.

Zhang L1, Huang LLiu QKuang SXu QQin XFu SWu QLiu QZeng Y.


Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi could be a potent chemotherapeutic agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.


J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Aug 8;155(1):847-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.053. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi methanol extracts inhibits metastasis via the Forkhead Box M1 activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Park HS1, Park KI2, Hong GE1, Nagappan A1, Lee HJ1, Kim EH3, Lee WS4, Shin SC5, Seo ON5, Won CK1, Cho JH1, Kim G6.



Cratoxylum formosum extract induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in liver cancer cells.


Chin Med. 2014 Apr 7;9(1):12. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-9-12.

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) extract induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through caspase-dependent pathways.

Nonpunya AWeerapreeyakul N1, Barusrux S.


Livistona chinensis seeds inhibit tumor angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Oncol Rep. 2014 Apr;31(4):1723-8. doi: 10.3892/or.2014.3051. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Livistona chinensis seeds inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis in vivo via suppression of the Notch pathway.

Lin W1, Zhao J1, Cao Z1, Zhuang Q1, Zheng L1, Zeng J1, Hong Z1, Peng J1.



Extract of Livistona chinensis seed shows an induction of hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis.


Oncol Rep. 2013 May;29(5):1859-66. doi: 10.3892/or.2013.2319. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Livistona chinensis seed suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth through promotion of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

Lin W1, Zhao JCao ZZhuang QZheng LCai QChen DWang LHong ZPeng J.



Centella asiatica juice may have the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.


BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jan 20;14:32. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-32.

The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Hussin FEshkoor SARahmat A1, Othman FAkim A.


Strobilanthes crispus juice may have chemopreventive effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(14):6047-53.

Strobilanthes crispus Juice Concentrations and Anticancer Effects on DNA Damage, Apoptosis and Gene Expression in hepatocellular carcinoma Cells.

Hussin F1, Eshkoor SARahmat AOthman FAkim AEshak Z.



In this study, Actinidiaceae inhibited growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.


Pharm Biol. 2016 Aug;54(8):1445-57. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1104699. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Corosolic acid analogue, a natural triterpenoid saponin, induces apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cells through mitochondrial pathway in vitro.

Qu L1, Zhang H1, Yang Y1, Yang G1, Xin H1,2, Ling C1,3.



Bolbostemma paniculatum extract may have a great potential as a chemotherapeutic drug candidate for hepatoma.


Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(6):831-8.

Natural plant extract tubeimoside I promotes apoptosis-mediated cell death in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

Wang Y1, Deng LZhong HWang YJiang XChen J.


Coptis root extract shows antiangiogenic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Integr Cancer Ther. 2014 Sep;13(5):425-34. doi: 10.1177/1534735413513635. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor via inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 by alkaloids in Coptidis rhizome in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Tan HY1, Wang N1, Tsao SW2, Zhang Z1, Feng Y3.


Astragalus and Red Sage extract significantly suppress hepatocellular carcinoma progression.


J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jun;29(6):1284-91. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12490.

Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts suppress hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling.

Hu X1, Rui WWu CHe SJiang JZhang XYang Y.


Curcuma oil can inhibit hepatoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

Int J Oncol. 2014 Feb;44(2):505-13. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.2184. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Hepatic protection and anticancer activity of curcuma: a potential chemopreventive strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Li Y1, Shi X2, Zhang J3, Zhang X2, Martin RC1.


Scutellaria barbata total flavonoids induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Tumour Biol. 2014 Mar;35(3):2549-59. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-1336-4. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Induction of apoptosis by total flavonoids from Scutellaria barbata D. Don in human hepatocarcinoma MHCC97-H cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

Gao J1, Lu WFDai ZJLin SZhao YLi SZhao NNWang XJKang HFMa XBZhang WG.



Plum blossom extract may be useful for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


World J Hepatol. 2013 Oct 27;5(10):596-600. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v5.i10.596.

Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma responds to MK615, a compound extract from the Japanese apricot "Prunus mume".

Hoshino T1, Takagi HNaganuma AKoitabashi EUehara SSakamoto NKudo TSato KKakizaki S.



Saussurea involucrata could be used as potential anti-tumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(9):5397-402.

Anti-metastatic potential of ethanol extract of Saussurea involucrata against hepatic cancer in vitro.

Byambaragchaa M1, de la Cruz JYang SHHwang SG.



Astragalus membranaceus extract may be an important agent against hepatocellular carcinoma via directly inhibiting HCC cell growth.


Oncol Rep. 2012 Dec;28(6):2091-100. doi: 10.3892/or.2012.2035. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

Swainsonine inhibits growth and potentiates the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

You N1, Liu WWang TJi RWang XGong ZDou KTao K.


In this study, Celastrus orbiculatus significantly inhibited the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma.


Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2012 May;20(5):377-80. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2012.05.015.

[Acetoacetate extract from Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb inhibits growth of RFP-xenografted human liver carcinoma].

[Article in Chinese]

Wang MR1, Zhang XLiu YQ.



Common hops acids may be used for prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Oncol Rep. 2012 Oct;28(4):1423-8. doi: 10.3892/or.2012.1925. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Hop bitter acids inhibit tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

Saugspier M1, Dorn CCzech BGehrig MHeilmann JHellerbrand C.



Shiitake Fungus extract can directly induce apoptosis of liver cancer cells, and thus may have potential chemotherapeutic applications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(7):1014-21.

Direct cytotoxicity of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

Yukawa H1, Ishikawa SKawanishi TTamesada MTomi H.


Fennel flower extract has a chemo-preventive effect against the progression into liver malignancy.


Environ Health Prev Med. 2013 Jan;18(1):49-56. doi: 10.1007/s12199-012-0292-8. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Can methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seed affect glyco-regulatory enzymes in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma?

Abdel-Hamid NM1, Abdel-Ghany MINazmy MHAmgad SW.



A nutrient mix of N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment liver cancer by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression, such as proliferation, invasion and metastasis, and by inducing apoptosis.


Cancers (Basel). 2012 Mar 23;4(2):323-39. doi: 10.3390/cancers4020323.

Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Roomi MW1, Roomi NWKalinovsky TNiedzwiecki ARath M.



Beefsteak plant extract suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth.


Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012 Dec 31;10(2):251-7. eCollection 2013.

Extract of Perilla frutescens inhibits tumor proliferation of HCC via PI3K/AKT signal pathway.

Wang Y1, Huang XHan JZheng WMa W.



Ginkgo Biloba and Milk Thistle extract may have beneficial chemopreventive roles against the production of liver cancer.


Cancer Cell Int. 2011 Oct 31;11(1):38. doi: 10.1186/1475-2867-11-38.

The chemopreventive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Silybum marianum extracts on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

El Mesallamy HO1, Metwally NSSoliman MSAhmed KAAbdel Moaty MM.



Pulsatilla koreana extract is an effective chemotherapeutic candidate for cancer therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma.


Int J Oncol. 2012 Feb;40(2):452-60. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2011.1204. Epub 2011 Sep 20.

Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Pulsatilla koreana extract on hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hong SW1, Jung KHLee HSChoi MJZheng HMSon MKLee GYHong SS.



Injectable Semen Coicis may induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma Cells.


Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2011 Jun;10(3):303-7.

hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis and caspase-8 and Bcl-2 expression induced by injectable seed extract of Coix lacryma-jobi.

Lu Y1, Zhang BYJia ZXWu WJLu ZQ.



Black nightshade plant extract may be an potent agent for liver cancer treatment through targeting G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis induction, achieving cell growth inhibition.


J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Jan 15;91(1):178-85. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4170. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Solanum nigrum L. polyphenolic extract inhibits hepatocarcinoma cell growth by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis.

Wang HC1, Chung PJWu CHLan KPYang MYWang CJ.


Pteris semipinnata extract might have a therapeutic value against human cancer cell lines and especially on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Zhong Yao Cai. 2010 Jan;33(1):77-80.

[Apoptosis effect and mechanism of 5F from Pteris semipinnata on HepG2 cells].

[Article in Chinese]

Li L1, Liu YLv YNWu KFChen GLiang NC.



Red Sage extract inhibits invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


Tumori. 2009 Nov-Dec;95(6):789-95.

Tanshinone II-A inhibits invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

Yuxian X1, Feng TRen LZhengcai L.



Ardisia pusilla has the potential of inhibition of liver cancer survival, invasion and metastasis.


Phytomedicine. 2012 May 15;19(7):603-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.01.003. Epub 2012 Feb 18.

Ardipusilloside inhibits survival, invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Lou L1, Ye WChen YWu SJin LHe JTao XZhu JChen XDeng AWang J.


Chrysanthemum indicum is a potential novel therapeutic medicinal plant for treatment of HCC or cancer invasion and metastasis.

Oncol Rep. 2010 Feb;23(2):413-21.

Chrysanthemum indicum ethanolic extract inhibits invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of MMP/TIMP balance as therapeutic target.

Wang ZD1, Huang CLi ZFYang JLi BHLiang RRDai ZJLiu ZW.



Scutellaria baicalensis shows inhibition of cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(4):530-7. doi: 10.1080/01635580902803719.

The effect of Scutellaria baicalensis on the signaling network in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Ye F1, Che YMcMillen EGorski JBrodman DSaw DJiang BZhang DY.



Chrysanthemum indicum plant extract could be a promising novel treatment for human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer.


World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 28;15(36):4538-46.

Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HCC MHCC97H cells with Chrysanthemum indicum extract.

Li ZF1, Wang ZDJi YYZhang SHuang CLi JXia XM.



Lucidenic acid found in Ganoderma lucidum could serve as a chemopreventive agent for the tumorigenesis and metastasis of highly invasive hepatoma cells.


J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):5049-57. doi: 10.1021/jf900828k.

Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models.

Weng CJ1, Chau CFYen GCLiao JWChen DHChen KD.



Extract of fungi of Huaier suppress not only the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells but also tumor angiogenesis and it can induce the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009 Apr;29(2):198-201. doi: 10.1007/s11596-009-0212-3. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Inhibitory effect of extract of fungi of Huaier on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Ren J1, Zheng CFeng GLiang HXia XFang JDuan XZhao H.


Songyou Yin extract inhibits tumor growth and prolonged survival, via inducing apoptosis which indicates its potential use in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.


J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009 Sep;135(9):1245-55. doi: 10.1007/s00432-009-0566-8. Epub 2009 Mar 10.

Herbal extract "Songyou Yin" inhibits tumor growth and prolongs survival in nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft with high metastatic potential.

Huang XY1, Wang LHuang ZLZheng QLi QSTang ZY.


Japanese apricot extract has an anti-cancer effect against hepatocellular carcinoma.


Hepatogastroenterology. 2007 Sep;54(78):1770-4.

A novel anti-cancer substance, MK615, from ume, a variety of Japanese apricot, inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing Aurora A kinase activity.

Okada T1, Sawada TOsawa TAdachi MKubota K.



Phellinus rimosus extract has significant chemopreventive properties against NDEA-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.


J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;5(4):309-21.

Chemopreventive activity of a macrofungus Phellinus rimosus against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rat.

Ajith TA1, Janardhanan KK.



The extract of Zanthoxylum schinifolium is a good candidate for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy by causing induced cell death in HepG2 cells.


Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 May;28(5):802-7.

The essential oils from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarp induce apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatoma cells through increased production of reactive oxygen species.

Paik SY1, Koh KHBeak SMPaek SHKim JA.


Cinnamomi Cortex and roots of Scutelleria Radix could be used as potential anti-tumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Pharmacol Res. 2004 Sep;50(3):279-85.

Inhibitory effect of Sihoga-Yonggol-Moryo-Tang on matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and invasiveness potential of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Ha KT1, Kim JKKang SKKim DWLee YCKim HMKim CH.



Ginkgo biloba extract significantly can suppress proliferation and increase cytotoxicity in liver cancer cells.


World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;10(1):37-41.

Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Chao JC1, Chu CC.

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