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Breast Cancer Research

in the peer-reviewed medical literature

None of the 700+ studies listed on this site can substitute for consulting a licensed naturopathic physician.  And none can be expected to function as stand-alone, at-home treatment.

Extract from the plant English Mandrake (Bryonia dioica) caused the death and paralysis breast cancer cells.

Mol Med Rep.  Benarba B, Elmallah A, Pandiella A. Bryonia dioica aqueous extract induces apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in MDA‑MB 231 breast cancer cells. 2019 Jul;20(1):73-80. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10220. Epub 2019 May 9. PubMed PMID: 31115513.

Frullanolide from the plant Grangea maderaspatana, a type of sunflower, has been shown to cause the death of breast cancer cells.

Oncol Lett.  Chimplee S, Graidist P, Srisawat T, Sukrong S, Bissanum R, Kanokwiroon K. Anti-breast cancer potential of frullanolide from Grangea maderaspatana plant by inducing apoptosis. 2019 Jun;17(6):5283-5291. doi: 10.3892/ol.2019.10209. Epub 2019 Apr 3. PubMed PMID: 31186745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6507448.

An omega-3 fatty acid can inhibit the ability for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body.

Nutrients.  Pizato N, Kiffer LFMV, Luzete BC, Assumpção JAF, Correa LH, Melo HAB, Sant'Ana LP, Ito MK, Magalhães KG. Omega 3-DHA and Delta-Tocotrienol Modulate Lipid Droplet Biogenesis and Lipophagy in Breast Cancer Cells: the Impact in Cancer Aggressiveness. 2019 May 28;11(6). doi: 10.3390/nu11061199. PubMed PMID: 31141912.

High calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake is associated with lower likelihood of contracting breast cancer.

Epidemiol Health.  Tayyem RF, Mahmoud RI, Shareef MH, Marei LS. Nutrient intake patterns and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women: a case-control study. 2019;41:e2019010. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2019010. Epub 2019 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 30999736; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6533554.

A species of dogwood tree: Cornus officinalis has been shown to significantly inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells.

Oncol Lett.  Telang NT, Nair HB, Wong GYC. Growth inhibitory efficacy of Cornus officinalis in a cell culture model for triple-negative breast cancer. 2019 Jun;17(6):5261-5266. doi: 10.3892/ol.2019.10182. Epub 2019 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 31186742; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6507492.


The Chinese herb Xiaoaiping treats many chemotherapy-induced side effects in breast cancer patients.

J Int Med Res.  Yu F, Li Y, Zou J, Jiang L, Wang C, Tang Y, Gao B, Luo D, Jiang X. The Chinese herb Xiaoaiping protects against breast cancer chemotherapy-induced alopecia and other side effects: a randomized controlled trial. 2019 Jun;47(6):2607-2614. doi: 10.1177/0300060519842781. Epub 2019 May 17. PubMed PMID: 31099281; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6567696.

When used with the drug Sulfasalazine a form of Vitamin E is shown to synergistically inhibit breast cancer growth.

Int J Med Sci.  Wei CW, Yu YL, Lu JY, Hung YT, Liu HC, Yiang GT. Anti-Cancer Effects of Sulfasalazine and Vitamin E Succinate in MDA-MB 231 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells. 2019;16(4):494-500. doi: 10.7150/ijms.30380. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31171899; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6535658.

Vitamin D3 shows promise in the treatment of breast cancer by stimulating the death of tumor cells and reducing the potential for the cancer to spread.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj.  Verma A, Cohen DJ, Schwartz N, Muktipaty C, Koblinski JE, Boyan BD, Schwartz Z.24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. 2019 May 22;. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2019.05.013. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31125679.

Research shows that a combination of fish oil and vitamin D3 helps prevent breast cancer in rats.

Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Oct 6;188(1):102-10. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.06.007. Epub 2010 Jun

Combinatorial effect of fish oil (Maxepa) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in the chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats.

Chatterjee M1, Janarthan M, Manivannan R, Rana A, Chatterjee M.



Vitamin D3 helps to reduce risk of malignant tumors in rat experiments.


Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Apr;8(2):159-68.

Effect of vitamin D3 on carcinogen-modified liver enzymes and tumour incidence in experimental rat mammary carcinogenesis.

Oinam S1, Karmakar R, Roy A, Indira BN, Chatterjee M.

This study demonstrates the potential for anti-metastisis therapy using a novel compuound aziridonin, derived from the medicinal herb Rabdosia rubescens.


Cancer Lett 2018 Jun 28;424:97-108. Doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.03.029. Epub 2018 mar 23.

Targeting the nrf-2/rhoa/rock signaling pathway with a novel aziridonin, yd0514, to suppress breast cancer progression and lung metastasis.

Li DWang HDing YZhang ZZheng ZDong JKim HMeng XZhou QZhou JFang LShen Q



Timosaponin a-iii, a natural medicine obtained from the rhizomes of an herb, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion in breast cancer cells.


Mol carcinog. 2018 Mar 12. Doi: 10.1002/mc.22804. [epub ahead of print]

Timosaponin a-iii inhibits oncogenic phenotype via regulation of pcg protein bmi1 in breast cancer cells.

Gergely JEDorsey AEDimri GPDimri M



This study provides new insight into anti-cancer effect of Astragalus membranaceus extract as a promising agent in breast cancer treatment.


BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Mar 9;18(1):83. Doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2148-2.

Extract from Astragalus membranaceus inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation via pi3k/akt/mtor signaling pathway.

Zhou RChen HChen JChen XWen YXu L



This study demonstrates that Urtica dioica, traditional herb used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.


Cell Mol Biol (noisy-le-grand). 2018 Feb 28;64(3):97-102. Doi: 10.14715/cmb/2018.64.3.16.

Urtica dioica inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis by targeting ornithine decarboxylase and adenosine deaminase as key regulatory enzymes in adenosine and polyamines homeostasis in human breast cancer cell lines.

Fattahi SGhadami EAsouri MMotevalizadeh Ardekanid AAkhavan-Niaki H.


This study suggests that triptolide, an active component from a chinese herb, Tripterygium wilfordii, specifically chemosensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin prior to apoptosis initiation.


Mol Carcinog. 2018 Jun;57(6):807-814. Doi: 10.1002/mc.22795. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Triptolide sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin through the dna damage response inhibition.

Deng YLi FHe PYang YYang JZhang YLiu JTong YLi QMei XShu ZZhao Q



This study suggest that shikonin, a naphthoquinone isolated from the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, can cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.


Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 8;8(1):2672. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21065-x.

Rna-seq transcriptome analysis of breast cancer cell lines under shikonin treatment.

Lin KHHuang MYCheng WCWang SCFang SHTu HPSu CCHung YLLiu PLChen CSWang YTLi CY

Selaginedorffone b, obtained from a methanolic extract of Selaginella moellendorffii, a traditional Chinese herb, showed cytotoxicity against human-breast-cancer-cell lines.


J Nat Prod. 2018 Feb 23;81(2):418-422. Doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00909. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Modified abietane diterpenoids from whole plants of Selaginella moellendorffii.

Ke LYZhang YXia MYZhuo JXWang YHLong CL



The North American plant Cimicifuga racemosa, also known as black cohosh, was observed to decrease breast cancer cell viability


Breast cancer (Dove Med Press). 2018 Jan 18;10:1-11. Doi: 10.2147/bctt.s144865. Ecollection 2018.

The effects of black cohosh on the regulation of estrogen receptor (erα) and progesterone receptor (pr) in breast cancer cells.

Szmyd MLloyd VHallman KAleck KMladenovik VMcKee CMorse MBedgood TDinda S


Matrine, an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb Sophora flavescens ait, inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, and reversed multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells.


J Cell Biochem. 2018 May;119(5):3885-3891. Doi: 10.1002/jcb.26502. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Matrine reversed multidrug resistance of breast cancer mcf-7/adr cells through pi3k/akt signaling pathway.

Zhou BGWei CSZhang SZhang ZGao HM



This study demonstrates molecular mechanisms that may facilitate the safe and effective use of herbal medicine for the prevention of breast cancer growth or metastasis.


Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 6;7(1):14513. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15030-3.

Network-pharmacology-based validation of tams/cxcl-1 as key mediator of xiaopi formula preventing breast cancer development and metastasis.

Wang NZheng YGu JCai YWang SZhang FChen JSitu HLin YWang Z


This study demonstrates that metastatic genes can be affected by curcumin in cancer progression. This substance can be used in breast cancer patients with advanced disease without side-effects commonly observed with therapeutic drugs.


Int J Oncol. 2017 Nov;51(5):1590-1600. Doi: 10.3892/ijo.2017.4125. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Metastatic genes targeted by an antioxidant in an established radiation- and estrogen-breast cancer model.

Calaf GMRoy D



The present study demonstrated that Cirsium japonicum extract and its active component cirsimaritin is a candidate as an alternative anti-breast cancer drug.


Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 Sep 1;27(17):3968-3973. Doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.07.070. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Beneficial effects of a medicinal herb, Cirsium japonicum var. Maackii, extract and its major component, cirsimaritin on breast cancer metastasis in mda-mb-231 breast cancer cells.

Yeon Park JYoung Kim HShibamoto TSu Jang TCheon Lee SSuk Shim JHahm DHLee HJLee SSung Kang K


This study examines the literature available to understand the role of diet and lifestyle and the incidence of breast cancer.


Toxicol In Vitro2018 Jun 1. pii: S0887-2333(18)30224-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2018.05.016. [Epub ahead of print]

Monte Carlo based modelling approach for designing and predicting cytotoxicity of 2-phenylindole derivatives against breast cancer cell line MCF7.

Gaikwad RGhorai SAbdul Amin SAdhikari NPatel TDas KJha TGayen S

Curcumol, isolated from the ethanol extracts of Curcuma wenyujin, may be a potential compound for use in the development of novel triple negative breast cancer therapeutics.


Oncol Lett. 2017 jul;14(1):1080-1088. Doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.6273. Epub 2017 may 29.

Curcumol triggers apoptosis of p53 mutant triple-negative human breast cancer mda-mb 231 cells via activation of p73 and puma.

Huang LLi ALiao GYang FYang JChen XJiang X



Herbal berberine is shown to inhibit the growth of certain breast cancer cell lines.

Phytomedicine. 2010 May;17(6):436-40. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.08.012. Epub 2009 Oct 2.

The alkaloid Berberine inhibits the growth of Anoikis-resistant MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest.

Kim JB1, Yu JH, Ko E, Lee KW, Song AK, Park SY, Shin I, Han W, Noh DY.

Flaxseed sprouts induce apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell growth.


In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2012 Apr;48(4):244-50. doi: 10.1007/s11626-012-9492-1. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Flaxseed sprouts induce apoptosis and inhibit growth in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.



Fish oil is associated with increased cell death of breast cancer cells in mice.


Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008 Jul-Aug;79(1-2):5-14. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2008.05.005. Epub 2008 Jul 

Dietary fish oil associated with increased apoptosis and modulated expression of Bax and Bcl-2 during 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats.

Manna S1, Chakraborty T, Ghosh B, Chatterjee M, Panda A, Srivastava S, Rana A, Chatterjee M.


Anemopsis Californica inhibits breast cancer cells 


Oncol Rep. 2006 May;15(5):1327-31.

Effects of extracts from two Native American plants on proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cell lines in vitro.

Daniels AL1, Van Slambrouck SLee RKArguello TSBrowning JPullin MJKornienko ASteelant WF.


Blueberry powder may reduce tumor size and metastasis for women with Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Whole blueberry powder inhibits metastasis of triple negative breast cancer in a xenograft mouse model through modulation of inflammatory cytokines. 

Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(2):242-8. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.863366. Epub 2013 Dec 23.  Kanaya N1, Adams LTakasaki AChen S.


Chamomile has been shown to cause apoptosis in breast cancer.

An investigation of the anticancer and cell death effects of chamomile confirmed it has a diverse range of photochemicals (plant based, all natural chemicals) that may suppress MCF-7, a specific cell line (estrogen positive, progesterone positive, HER2 negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma,  metastatic) through cell arrest and death.

Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Chamaemelum Nobile Extract in Breast Cancer Cells.

Iran J Pharm Res. 2016 Winter;15(Suppl):197-204.

Mostafapour Kandelous H1, Salimi M1, Khori V2, Rastkari N3, Amanzadeh A4, Salimi M5.


Low doses of apigenin showed potential to slow or prevent breast cancer progression in multiple breast cancer cell lines. And, as it turns out, oxidative stress did not play the role that was expected against apigenin. High concentrations of apigenin are found in parsley, onions, grapefruit, oranges, and chamomile tea.  

Exposure of breast cancer cells to a subcytotoxic dose of apigenin causes growth inhibition, oxidative stress, and hypophosphorylation of Akt.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2014 Oct;97(2):211-7. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2014.07.006. Epub 2014 Jul 12.

Harrison ME1, Power Coombs MR2, Delaney LM1, Hoskin DW3.



Low doses of modified citrus pectin does not suppress cell adhesion in breast or prostrate cells, but when you add Breast Defend or ProstaCaid there is a synergistic effect that suppresses metastasis. Further studies in animal models are warranted.  

Synergistic and additive effects of modified citrus pectin with two polybotanical compounds, in the suppression of invasive behavior of human breast and prostate cancer cells.

Integr Cancer Ther. 2013 Mar;12(2):145-52. doi: 10.1177/1534735412442369. Epub 2012 Apr 24.

Jiang J1, Eliaz ISliva D.


A review of the literature on the anti-cancer effect and bioavailability of the polyphenols in olive leaf extract showed anecdotal evidence it can reduce the prevalence and progression of hormonal related cancer, but clinical trials are needed to substantiate these claims. Citations are available by clicking on full text. It is believed the reason that olive oil has gained such recognition for health benefits is related to the polyphenols in it. Olive leaf extract has even more and higher quality polyphenols than olive oil so this research is promising.

Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

Nutrients. 2016 Aug 19;8(8). pii: E513. doi: 10.3390/nu8080513.

Boss A1, Bishop KS2, Marlow G3, Barnett MP4, Ferguson LR5,6.



Well balanced portions of all-trans-retinoic acid (in Vitamin A) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a fatty acid) may be effective in cancer cell death. In this study of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line the combination treatment induced greater cancer cell death than either treatment alone.

The combined effects of all-trans-retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

J Cancer Res Ther. 2016 Jan-Mar;12(1):204-8. doi: 10.4103/0973-1482.154071.

Abdolahi MShokri FHosseini MShadanian MSaboor-Yaraghi AA1.


This South Korean Study demonstrated MSM is effective in all breast cancer cell lines including triple negative. The researchers call for a drug trial. MSM is derived from a natural compound and has no toxicity. It is available as a supplement.

Methylsulfonylmethane Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth by Down-Regulating STAT3 and STAT5b Pathways  PLOS.  Published April 2, 2012

Eun Joung Lim, Dae Young Hong, Jin Hee Park, Youn Hee Joung, Pramod Darvin, Sang Yoon Kim, Yoon Mi Na, Tae Sook Hwang, Sang-Kyu Ye, Eon-Soo Moon, Byung Wook Cho, Kyung Do Park, Hak Kyo Lee,  Taekyu Park, Young Mok Yang 


The higher a woman’s risk, the more Vitamin D3 seems to help.

Vitamin D3 Treatment Influences PGE2 and TGFβ in Normal and Increased Breast Cancer Risk Women.

Anticancer Res. 2016 Oct;36(10):5347-5353.

Qin W, Holick MF, Sorensen W, Walker CR, Sauter ER.


This article defines stems cells and explains why it is so important to find agents to work on them since the traditional protocols have no such effect. It is now believed that stem cells are what cause chemo drug resistance, metastasis and reoccurrences. Phytochemicals are quickly gaining attention as a way to target both cancer and stem cells. Another attractive thing about phytochemicals is when natural compounds are used in their natural form they have relatively little or no toxic effects.  

Targeting cancer stem cells and signaling pathways by phytochemicals: Novel approach for breast cancer therapy.

Semin Cancer Biol. 2016 Oct;40-41:192-208. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2016.09.001. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

Dandawate PR1, Subramaniam D2, Jensen RA3, Anant S4.


The natural blends of these plants seem to have specific positive effects on the spread of cell growth on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and three other cancer cell lines.

Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines.

Molecules. 2016 Mar 23;21(4):395. doi: 10.3390/molecules21040395.

Pollio A1, Zarrelli A2, Romanucci V3, Di Mauro A4, Barra F5, Pinto G6, Crescenzi E7, Roscetto E8,

Palumbo G9.


Garlic bulb extract may be effective with or without chemotherapy drugs in preventing the spread of cancer and in causing cell death.

In vitro Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Inducing Effect of Allium atroviolaceum Bulb Extract on Breast, Cervical, and Liver Cancer Cells.

Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jan 31;8:5. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00005. eCollection 2017.

Khazaei S1, Esa NM2, Ramachandran V3, Hamid RA1, Pandurangan AK4, Etemad A1, Ismail P1.


The first study on the role of diet in triple negative breast cancer. It was found that diet is an important means of prevention in this disease. Diets composed of mostly of vegetables, vegetable fats, and nuts is associated with lower risk and diets heavy on meat, eggs, and grains are associated with this aggressive cancer and high density breasts. 

Dietary Patterns for Women With Triple-negative Breast Cancer and Dense Breasts.

Nutr Cancer. 2016 Nov-Dec;68(8):1281-1288. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Go Y1, Chung M2, Park Y1.


Piperine from black pepper may inhibit growth and metastasis in treating triple negative breast cancer. It appears to have positive effect by itself and enhances the effects of radiation.

Piperine inhibits the growth and motility of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Cancer Lett. 2015 Feb 1;357(1):129-40. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.11.017. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Greenshields AL1, Doucette CD1, Sutton KM1, Madera L2, Annan H3, Yaffe PB4, Knickle AF2, Dong Z3, Hoskin DW5.


Numerous spices have been identified as helpful to treating various cancers including breast cancer. The following study is actually a summary of the recent research on specific spices and their ability to prevent or treat cancer.

Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

Nutrients. 2016 Aug 12;8(8). pii: E495. doi: 10.3390/nu8080495.

Zheng J1, Zhou Y2, Li Y3, Xu DP4, Li S5, Li HB6,7.

Significant results for pepper seed extract preventing metastatic disease. 

Pepper seed extract suppresses invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):159-65. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.853814. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

Kim HA1, Kim MSKim SHKim YK.

Supplementing with combination of vanadium and fish oil helped to slow tumor growth and induced cell death in rats with breast cancer.


J Cell Biochem. 2011 Sep;112(9):2327-39. doi: 10.1002/jcb.23153.

Combined supplementation of vanadium and fish oil suppresses tumor growth, cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.

Manna S1, Das S, Chatterjee M, Janarthan M, Chatterjee M.


Lipoprotein (a) and vitamin C prevent the development of breast cancer in mice bred to be similar to humans in their metabolism.


Int J Oncol. 2016 Sep;49(3):895-902. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3597. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Lipoprotein(a) and vitamin C impair development of breast cancer tumors in Lp(a)+; Gulo-/- mice.

Cha J1, Roomi MW1, Kalinovsky T1, Niedzwiecki A1, Rath M1.


The essential oil of Decatropis bicolor has been found to have ability to kill breast cancer cells.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 5;16:266. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1136-7.

Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.) Radlk essential oil induces apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

Estanislao Gómez CC1, Aquino Carreño A1,2, Pérez Ishiwara DG1,3, San Martín Martínez E4, Morales López J1, Pérez Hernández N1, Gómez García MC5.

The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen tumor growth.


Saudi Pharm J. 2016 May;24(3):233-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.018. Epub 2016 May 5.

Natural cures for breast cancer treatment.

Shareef M1, Ashraf MA2, Sarfraz M1.



Acanthopanax sessiliflorus inhibits metastasis processes, such as angiogenesis and invasion, in breast cancer.


Planta Med. 2013 Nov;79(17):1636-40. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1350954. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruit inhibits metastasis by downregulating MMP-9 in breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231.

Lee SJ1, Hong SYoo SHKim GW.


Vitamin A and retinol could reduce breast cancer risk.


Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Oct;22(10):1383-96. doi: 10.1007/s10552-011-9811-y. Epub 2011 Jul 15.

Retinol, vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Fulan H1, Changxing JBaina WYWencui ZChunqing LFan WDandan LDianjun STong WDa PYashuang Z.


Vitamin D intake of >800 IU/day appears to be associated with a small decrease in risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women.


Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Sep;18(7):775-82. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.

Robien K1, Cutler GJLazovich D.


Taraxacum officinale in the extracts may be of value as novel anti-cancer agents.


Int J Oncol. 2008 May;32(5):1085-90.

Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells.

Sigstedt SC1, Hooten CJCallewaert MCJenkins ARRomero AEPullin MJKornienko ALowrey TKSlambrouck SVSteelant WF.



Ganoderma lucidum inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of breast cancer.


Nutr Cancer. 2004;49(2):209-16.

Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling.

Jiang J1, Slivova VHarvey KValachovicova TSliva D.


Root bark of Pseudocedrela kotschyi exhibited marked anticancer activity.


Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):46-50. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.199776.

Cytotoxicity Studies of the Extracts, Fractions, and Isolated Compound of Pseudocedrela kotschyi on Cervical Cancer (HeLa), Breast Cancer (MCF-7) and Skeletal Muscle Cancer (RD) Cells.

Elufioye TO1, Abdul AA1, Moody JO1.


Curcumin is able to inhibit the proliferation of Triple Negative Breast Cancer cells

Mol Med Rep. 2012 Dec;6(6):1267-70. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2012.1103. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Curcumin induces apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells by inhibition of EGFR expression.

Sun XD1, Liu XEHuang DS.


Motherwort Aqueous ethanol extract may effectively inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells 

J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Mar 18;122(2):234-9.

Cytotoxicity of Chinese motherwort (YiMuCao) aqueous ethanol extract is non-apoptotic and estrogen receptor independent on human breast cancer cells.

Tao J1, Zhang PLiu GYan HBu XMa ZWang NWang GJia W.


Huanglian is a promising herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of certain cancers

Carcinogenesis. 2005 Nov;26(11):1934-9. Epub 2005 Jun 15.

The extract of huanglian, a medicinal herb, induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by upregulation of interferon-beta and TNF-alpha in human breast cancer cells.

Kang JX1, Liu JWang JHe CLi FP.


Lignan may have antitumor activity in human breast cancer cells independently of estrogen receptor status.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Sep 7;16:350. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1233-7.

Phytoestrogen (+)-pinoresinol exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells with different oestrogen receptor statuses.

López-Biedma A1, Sánchez-Quesada C1, Beltrán G2, Delgado-Rodríguez M1,3, Gaforio JJ4.


Phaleria macrocarpa  is a potential anticancer agent which targets genes involved in both cell survival and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

Cancer Biol Ther. 2010 Oct 15;10(8):814-23. doi: 10.4161/cbt.10.8.13085. Epub 2010 Oct 15.

Induction of cellular apoptosis in human breast cancer by DLBS1425, a Phaleria macrocarpa compound extract, via down-regulation of PI3-kinase/AKT pathway.

Tandrasasmita OM1, Lee JSBaek SHTjandrawinata RR.



Bark of Tabebuia Avellanedae tree can be a therapy for breast cancer

Int J Mol Med. 2009 Aug;24(2):253-60.

Growth inhibition of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells by Taheebo from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellandae tree.

Mukherjee B1, Telang NWong GY.



Lignans may have antitumor activity in human breast cancer cells independently of estrogen receptor status.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Sep 7;16:350. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1233-7.

Phytoestrogen (+)-pinoresinol exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells with different oestrogen receptor statuses.

López-Biedma A1, Sánchez-Quesada C1, Beltrán G2, Delgado-Rodríguez M1,3, Gaforio JJ4.



This study identified two new curcumin conjugate compounds with more potent activity than curcumin against breast and prostate cancers.


Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016 Sep 1;26(17):4223-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.07.053. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel triazole hybrids of curcumin mimics and their selective anticancer activity against breast and prostate cancer cell lines.

Mandalapu D1, Saini KS2, Gupta S3, Sharma V2, Yaseen Malik M4, Chaturvedi S4, Bala V3, Hamidullah2, Thakur S5, Maikhuri JP2, Wahajuddin M4, Konwar R2, Gupta G2, Sharma VL6


Phaleria macrocarpa has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties, which make it pharmacologically ideal for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer


J Exp Ther Oncol. 2010;8(3):187-201.

DLBS1425, a Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extract confers anti proliferative and proapoptosis effects via eicosanoid pathway.

Tjandrawinata RR1, Arifin PFTandrasasmita OMRahmi DAripin A.


Tea polyphenols may be useful in the chemoprevention of breast carcinoma in which FAS overexpression results from HER2 or/and HER3 signaling.

J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5030-7. Epub 2007 Jun 1.

Tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate suppresses heregulin-beta1-induced fatty acid synthase expression in human breast cancer cells by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade signaling.

Pan MH1, Lin CCLin JKChen WJ.

A nontoxic small-molecule constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables (benzyl isothiocyanate; BITC) inhibits mammary cancer development in mouse mammary tumor virus-neu (MMTV-neu) transgenic mice by causing epithelial tumor cell apoptosis.


Cancer Prev Res  Dietary chemopreventative benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits breast cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Kim SH, et al. (Phila). 2013.


Curcumin and paclitaxel alone or together cause cell death. When curcumin is used with paclitaxel, it reduced the toxicity of paclitaxel. Additional effects observed using these substances alone and combined. Both start out in nature, but paclitaxel has been altered to become a chemo drug. 



Int J Oncol. 2016 Dec;49(6):2569-2577. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3741. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Effect of curcumin and paclitaxel on breast carcinogenesis.

Quispe-Soto ETCalaf GM.



Iodine deficiency is caused by a lack of iodine in our food supply. Increased breast cancer may be related. Iodine testing and management with supplementation are recommended. Iodine deficiency is also related to fibrocystic disease, which may precipitate cancer.  


J Cancer. 2017; 8(2): 174–177. Published online 2017 Jan 13. doi:  10.7150/jca.17835

Changes in Dietary Iodine Explains Increasing Incidence of Breast Cancer with Distant Involvement in Young Women

Jay Rappaport



Sulforaphane found in broccoli and broccoli sprouts inhibits breast cancer stem cells, the deadliest cancer cells, via a renewal pathway. Broccoli sprouts are higher in sulforaphane than is broccoli.


Clin Cancer Res. 2010 May 1;16(9):2580-90. doi:

10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2937. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells.

Li YZhang TKorkaya HLiu SLee HFNewman BYu YClouthier SGSchwartz SJWicha MSSun D.


Indole-3-carbinol inhibits Triple Negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line motility and more.


Int J Cancer. 2009 May 15;124(10):2294-302. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24210.

Indole-3-carbinol inhibits MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell motility and induces stress fibers and focal adhesion formation by activation of Rho kinase activity.

Brew CTAronchik IKosco KMcCammon JBjeldanes LFFirestone GL.


Indole-3-carbinol induces cell cycle arrest of MDA-MB-231 cells by shifting the accumulation of cyclin E Protein from a form that is associated with a poor prognosis to one that is typically expressed in normal breast tissue. Indole-3-carbinol comes from cruciferous vegetables.


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 16;105(50):19750-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0806581105. Epub 2008 Dec 8.

The dietary phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is a natural elastase enzymatic inhibitor that disrupts cyclin E protein processing.

Nguyen HHAronchik IBrar GANguyen DHBjeldanes LFFirestone GL.


Eating vegetables in the cabbage, broccoli, and Brussel sprouts family reduce the risk of many kinds of cancer. This study used a rat model and oral dosing to see the effects on mammary cells. A follow up was done on healthy women to see if the sulforaphane would show up in human breast tissue. It did. Researchers concluded clinical trials were in order for a broccoli sprout preparation.


Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul;28(7):1485-90. Epub 2007 Mar 7.

Preclinical and clinical evaluation of sulforaphane for chemoprevention in the breast.

Cornblatt BSYe LDinkova-Kostova ATErb MFahey JWSingh NKChen MSStierer TGarrett-Mayer EArgani PDavidson NETalalay PKensler TWVisvanathan K.



A short, but fairly comprehensive summary of the best foods to prevent and treat many cancers, including breast cancer, is provided at the link below. It is well written and easy to understand. Includes prevention statistics.


Nutr J. 2004 Oct 20;3:19.

Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet.

Donaldson MS


Administration of dried flower buds from cloves were used on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A dose dependent tumor frequency reduction of 47.5% and 58.5% were achieved compared to control. These were significant anti-cancer effects.


J Cell Mol Med. 2017 May 19. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13197. [Epub ahead of print]

Antineoplastic effects of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.) in the model of breast carcinoma.

Kubatka PUramova SKello MKajo KKruzliak PMojzis JVybohova DAdamkov MJasek KLasabova ZZubor PFialova SDokupilova SSolar PPec MAdamicova KDanko JAdamek MBusselberg D.


Two essential oils derived from Eryngium species are effective against TNBC MDA-MC 231 cells, A375 malignant melanoma cells, and HCT116 colon cells. These essential oils have a similar effect to the chemo drug cisplatin.


Chem Biodivers. 2017 Mar 23. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201700096. [Epub ahead of print]

Cytotoxic essential oils from Eryngium campestre and Eryngium amethystinum (Apiaceae) growing in central Italy.

Cianfaglione KBlomme EEQuassinti LBramucci MLupidi GDall'Acqua SMaggi F.


Three Ballota species essential oils were examined against breast cancer MCF-7 cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Notable effects came from two of the species. B. saxitillis was the most active against MCF-7 cells. “B. undulata showed the highest antiradical effect” on both cell lines. It also showed the highest effect against HepG2 cancer cells.


Nat Prod Res. 2017 Feb;31(4):436-444. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2016.1185722. Epub 2016 May 17.

Phytochemical profile of three Ballota species essential oils and evaluation of the effects on human cancer cells.

Rigano DMarrelli MFormisano CMenichini FSenatore FBruno MConforti F.


Cell death occurred in all cell lines tested: breast cancer MCF-7 and prostate cells PC3 and DU145. PC3 cells were more sensitive to N. cataria than DU 145 cells. More studies warranted.


Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(S3):125-30.

Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction of Essential Oils and Extracts of Nepeta cataria L. on Human Prostatic and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

Emami SAAsili JHossein Nia SYazdian-Robati RSahranavard MTayarani-Najaran Z.



Cell death was induced in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by Nigella sativa L. essential oil. Other anti-cancer effects also shown. This essential oil shows promise for breast cancer therapy. Warrants further study.


Ultrason Sonochem. 2016 Jul;31:449-55. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.01.035. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Anticancer activity of an ultrasonic nanoemulsion formulation of Nigella sativa L. essential oil on human breast cancer cells.

Periasamy VSAthinarayanan JAlshatwi AA.


Essential oil used in traditional Mexican medicine validated for its anti-cancer properties. Specifically it caused cell death of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. 

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 5;16:266. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1136-7.

Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.) Radlk essential oil induces apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

Estanislao Gómez CCAquino Carreño APérez Ishiwara DGSan Martín Martínez EMorales López JPérez Hernández NGómez García MC.



Herb pairs are widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. These essential oils could reduce multiple drug resistance in MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells. 


J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Mar 2;180:18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.015. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Essential oils from Inula japonica and Angelicae dahuricae enhance sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells to doxorubicin via multiple mechanisms.

Wu MLi TChen LPeng SLiao WBai RZhao XYang HWu CZeng HLiu Y.



Opoponax essential oil kills cancer cells in multiple human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and BT474 as well as murine mammary tumor cells in vivo and in vitro.


Phytother Res. 2016 Mar;30(3):418-25. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5543. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

β-Bisabolene, a Sesquiterpene from the Essential Oil Extract of Opoponax (Commiphora guidottii), Exhibits Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

Yeo SKAli AYHayward OATurnham DJackson TBowen IDClarkson R.


A compound in cruciferous vegetables abbreviated BITC inhibits mammary tumor virus in mice causing cell death of cancer stem cells, the most deadly kind of cancer cells.


Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Aug;6(8):782-90. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0100. Epub 2013 May 9.

Dietary chemopreventative benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits breast cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

Kim SHSehrawat ASingh SV.


Diallyl trisulfie (DATS) which comes from garlic and other Allium vegetables has multiple anti-cancer effects for breast cancer. This was the first time DATS was shown to inhibit expression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 proteins involved in activities related to a signaling path clinically related to lower survival of breast cancer patients. DATS also provides a dose-dependent reduction of colony cell formation. Studied: MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and tumor suppressor gene silencing in Harvey-ras transformed breast epithelial cells.


Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Mar 18;484(4):833-838. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.01.184. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Diallyl trisulfide, a chemopreventive agent from Allium vegetables, inhibits alpha-secretases in breast cancer cells.

Kiesel VAStan SD.



Diallyl trisulfie (DATS) a form of garlic again shows powerful anti-cancer action, this time against breast cancer stem cells. DATS achieved a reduction in the protein level of a gene called FoxQ1, which is overexpressed in MCF-7 and SUM159 Triple Negative cell lines. This overexpression causes increased enzyme activity (ADH1) that is encoded by the ADH1A1 gene. FoxQ1 is thought to negatively impact another protein encoded as the DACH1 gene, which loses its ability to express in invasive breast cancer. Inducible expression of DACH1 increased DATS inhibitory effect on cancer stem cells. DAS inhibits Triple Negative Breast cancer stem cells.


J Biol Chem. 2016 Jun 24;291(26):13495-508. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.715219. Epub 2016 Apr 29.   

Forkhead Box Q1 Is a Novel Target of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Inhibition by Diallyl Trisulfide.

Kim SHKaschula CHPriedigkeit NLee AVSingh SV.


Flavonoids from the herb Astragalus complanatus (FAC) inhibited cancer cell reproduction in three breast cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Survival was longer in nude mice treated with FAC. It also inhibited metastasis significantly. FAC worked in in vitro and in vivo studies by “promoting programmed cell death” and regulating “metastasis-related gene expression.”


Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;388(9):965-72. doi: 10.1007/s00210-015-1127-0. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

​Effects and mechanism of flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus on breast cancer growth.

Zhu JZhang HZhu ZZhang QMa XCui ZYao T.



A case study of a 46 year old Korean woman diagnosed with stage III breast cancer follows. She originally under-went surgery, chemotherapy and radiology. When the cancer metastasized to her lung 8 months later she declined more chemotherapy. Instead she choose a Korean treatment that combines herbs and acupuncture. The disease looked stable after a month, but there was more metastasis after 6 months. She again refused chemotherapy. She started treatment with another combination of plant material and acupuncture. A complete resolution was achieved in 5 months. She remained stable with maintenance treatments for 6 months (the time at which this case report was written).

Case Rep Oncol. 2015 Feb 10;8(1):64-71. doi: 10.1159/000375292. eCollection 2015 Jan-Apr.

Korean medicine therapy as a substitute for chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a case report.

Lee DHKim SSSeong SKim NHan JB.



Herbal extracts from Astragalus membranaceus, Anglica gagas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz suppressed MDA-MB-231 breast tumor growth and lung cancer metastasis in vivo.


Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:492173. doi: 10.1155/2014/492173. Epub 2014 May 25

Herbal extract SH003 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling.

Choi YKCho SGWoo SMYun YJPark SShin YCKo SG.

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